Solutions -

Verbal Reasoning Test 1

Select question to reveal answer and solution.
Exclusive discount offers available on this page

1. China’s one-child policy increases the country’s wealth.

True

False

Cannot say

Cannot say - The fourth sentence states that the policy increases China’s per capita gross domestic product, however this is just one economic indicator and is based on output per person. The passage does not tell us if overall, the country as a whole has increased wealth due to the one child policy. Since the passage does not tell us either way, we must respond Cannot Say.

Instituted in 1979 as a temporary measure to limit population growth, China’s one child policy remains in force today and is likely to continue for another decade. China’s population control policy has attracted criticism because of the manner in which it is enforced, and also because of its social repercussions. Supporters of the Chinese government’s policy consider it a necessary measure to curb extreme overpopulation, which has resulted in a reduction of an estimated 300 million people in its first twenty years. Not only is a reduced population environmentally beneficial, it also increases China’s per capita gross domestic product. The one-child policy has led to a disparate ratio of males to females – with abortion, abandonment and infanticide of female infants resulting from a cultural preference for sons. Furthermore, Draconian measures such as forced sterilization are strongly opposed by critics as a violation of human reproduction rights. The one-child policy is enforced strictly in urban areas, whereas in provincial regions fines are imposed on families with more than one child. There are also exceptions to the rules – for example, ethnic minorities. A rule also allows couples without siblings to have two children – a provision which applies to millions of sibling-free adults now of child-bearing age.

2. The passage suggests that two-child families will dramatically increase, as sibling-free adults reach child-bearing age.

True

False

Cannot say

False - The last sentence merely presents the fact that millions or sibling-free couples are able to have two children, and does not speculate as to the implications.

Instituted in 1979 as a temporary measure to limit population growth, China’s one child policy remains in force today and is likely to continue for another decade. China’s population control policy has attracted criticism because of the manner in which it is enforced, and also because of its social repercussions. Supporters of the Chinese government’s policy consider it a necessary measure to curb extreme overpopulation, which has resulted in a reduction of an estimated 300 million people in its first twenty years. Not only is a reduced population environmentally beneficial, it also increases China’s per capita gross domestic product. The one-child policy has led to a disparate ratio of males to females – with abortion, abandonment and infanticide of female infants resulting from a cultural preference for sons. Furthermore, Draconian measures such as forced sterilization are strongly opposed by critics as a violation of human reproduction rights. The one-child policy is enforced strictly in urban areas, whereas in provincial regions fines are imposed on families with more than one child. There are also exceptions to the rules – for example, ethnic minorities. A rule also allows couples without siblings to have two children – a provision which applies to millions of sibling-free adults now of child-bearing age.

3. The main criticism of China’s one-child policy is that it violates human rights.

True

False

Cannot say

Cannot say - The second sentence states that both the policy’s manner of enforcement and its social repercussions are criticised – but does not state which is the main criticism. So based on the information we are given, we cannot say.

Instituted in 1979 as a temporary measure to limit population growth, China’s one child policy remains in force today and is likely to continue for another decade. China’s population control policy has attracted criticism because of the manner in which it is enforced, and also because of its social repercussions. Supporters of the Chinese government’s policy consider it a necessary measure to curb extreme overpopulation, which has resulted in a reduction of an estimated 300 million people in its first twenty years. Not only is a reduced population environmentally beneficial, it also increases China’s per capita gross domestic product. The one-child policy has led to a disparate ratio of males to females – with abortion, abandonment and infanticide of female infants resulting from a cultural preference for sons. Furthermore, Draconian measures such as forced sterilization are strongly opposed by critics as a violation of human reproduction rights. The one-child policy is enforced strictly in urban areas, whereas in provincial regions fines are imposed on families with more than one child. There are also exceptions to the rules – for example, ethnic minorities. A rule also allows couples without siblings to have two children – a provision which applies to millions of sibling-free adults now of child-bearing age.

4. Families with more than one child are more common in China’s rural areas.

True

False

Cannot say

Cannot say - While the 7th sentence states that the policy is enforced less strictly in provincial regions, comparative figures are not provided. One might deduce this statement is likely given what we are told, but we are not told explicitly if this is true or false, therefore we cannot say.

Instituted in 1979 as a temporary measure to limit population growth, China’s one child policy remains in force today and is likely to continue for another decade. China’s population control policy has attracted criticism because of the manner in which it is enforced, and also because of its social repercussions. Supporters of the Chinese government’s policy consider it a necessary measure to curb extreme overpopulation, which has resulted in a reduction of an estimated 300 million people in its first twenty years. Not only is a reduced population environmentally beneficial, it also increases China’s per capita gross domestic product. The one-child policy has led to a disparate ratio of males to females – with abortion, abandonment and infanticide of female infants resulting from a cultural preference for sons. Furthermore, Draconian measures such as forced sterilization are strongly opposed by critics as a violation of human reproduction rights. The one-child policy is enforced strictly in urban areas, whereas in provincial regions fines are imposed on families with more than one child. There are also exceptions to the rules – for example, ethnic minorities. A rule also allows couples without siblings to have two children – a provision which applies to millions of sibling-free adults now of child-bearing age.

5. The general preference among Chinese parents is for male babies.

True

False

Cannot say

True - The fifth sentence tells us that “a disparate ratio of males to females” is the result of “a cultural preference for sons”. Whilst it might be impossible to make assumptions about what each parent’s preference is, the key word in the statement in “general” which means we can look at the overall trend, in this case towards sons.

Instituted in 1979 as a temporary measure to limit population growth, China’s one child policy remains in force today and is likely to continue for another decade. China’s population control policy has attracted criticism because of the manner in which it is enforced, and also because of its social repercussions. Supporters of the Chinese government’s policy consider it a necessary measure to curb extreme overpopulation, which has resulted in a reduction of an estimated 300 million people in its first twenty years. Not only is a reduced population environmentally beneficial, it also increases China’s per capita gross domestic product. The one-child policy has led to a disparate ratio of males to females – with abortion, abandonment and infanticide of female infants resulting from a cultural preference for sons. Furthermore, Draconian measures such as forced sterilization are strongly opposed by critics as a violation of human reproduction rights. The one-child policy is enforced strictly in urban areas, whereas in provincial regions fines are imposed on families with more than one child. There are also exceptions to the rules – for example, ethnic minorities. A rule also allows couples without siblings to have two children – a provision which applies to millions of sibling-free adults now of child-bearing age.

6. There are only two exemptions to a federally recognized tribe’s powers of selfgovernment.

True

False

Cannot say

False - The fifth sentence states that there are “limitations” and cites two “amongst others”. So we are told there are more than two limitations.

There are 562 federally recognized American Indian tribes, with a total of 1.7 million members. Additionally, there are hundreds of groups seeking federal recognition – or sovereignty – though less than ten percent will successfully achieve this status. Federally recognised tribes have the right to self-government, and are also eligible for federal assistance programmes. Exempt from state and local jurisdiction, tribes may enforce their own laws, request tax breaks and control regulatory activities. There are however limitations to their sovereignty including, amongst others, the ability to make war and create currency. Historically, tribes were granted federal recognition through treaties or by executive order. Since 1978 however, this has been replaced by a lengthy and stringent regulatory process which requires tribes applying for federal recognition to fulfil seven criteria, such as anthropological and historical evidence. One of the complications regarding federal recognition is the legal definition of “Indian”. Previously, racial criteria, tribal records and personal affidavits were used to classify American Indians. Since the 1970s, however, there has been a shift to the use of a political definition – requiring membership in a federally recognized tribe in order to qualify for benefits, such as loans and educational grants. This definition, however, excludes many individuals of Native American heritage who are not tribal members.

7. Demand for federal recognition is high because it is a prerequisite for benefit programmes.

True

False

Cannot say

Cannot say - The passage does not specify why hundreds of groups are seeking federal recognition. Even though one might postulate demand is due to receiving benefits, the passage does not tell us this is or is not the case, so we cannot say.

There are 562 federally recognized American Indian tribes, with a total of 1.7 million members. Additionally, there are hundreds of groups seeking federal recognition – or sovereignty – though less than ten percent will successfully achieve this status. Federally recognised tribes have the right to self-government, and are also eligible for federal assistance programmes. Exempt from state and local jurisdiction, tribes may enforce their own laws, request tax breaks and control regulatory activities. There are however limitations to their sovereignty including, amongst others, the ability to make war and create currency. Historically, tribes were granted federal recognition through treaties or by executive order. Since 1978 however, this has been replaced by a lengthy and stringent regulatory process which requires tribes applying for federal recognition to fulfil seven criteria, such as anthropological and historical evidence. One of the complications regarding federal recognition is the legal definition of “Indian”. Previously, racial criteria, tribal records and personal affidavits were used to classify American Indians. Since the 1970s, however, there has been a shift to the use of a political definition – requiring membership in a federally recognized tribe in order to qualify for benefits, such as loans and educational grants. This definition, however, excludes many individuals of Native American heritage who are not tribal members.

8. Since 1978 it has become harder for a tribe to achieve federally recognized status.

True

False

Cannot say

Cannot say - The 7th sentence refers to the introduction of a “lengthy and stringent regulatory process” in 1978 however the passage does not tell us how difficult it was before the introduction of this process. In order to respond either True or False we would need to know about before and after 1978 to draw a comparison, but we do not so we must respond Cannot say.

There are 562 federally recognized American Indian tribes, with a total of 1.7 million members. Additionally, there are hundreds of groups seeking federal recognition – or sovereignty – though less than ten percent will successfully achieve this status. Federally recognised tribes have the right to self-government, and are also eligible for federal assistance programmes. Exempt from state and local jurisdiction, tribes may enforce their own laws, request tax breaks and control regulatory activities. There are however limitations to their sovereignty including, amongst others, the ability to make war and create currency. Historically, tribes were granted federal recognition through treaties or by executive order. Since 1978 however, this has been replaced by a lengthy and stringent regulatory process which requires tribes applying for federal recognition to fulfil seven criteria, such as anthropological and historical evidence. One of the complications regarding federal recognition is the legal definition of “Indian”. Previously, racial criteria, tribal records and personal affidavits were used to classify American Indians. Since the 1970s, however, there has been a shift to the use of a political definition – requiring membership in a federally recognized tribe in order to qualify for benefits, such as loans and educational grants. This definition, however, excludes many individuals of Native American heritage who are not tribal members.

9. Federally recognized tribes are not subject to state laws and do not pay taxes.

True

False

Cannot say

False - While the fourth sentence states that tribes are “exempt from state and local jurisdiction” but goes on to say that the tribes may “request tax breaks”. So as we are told tribes may request state tax breaks, this tells us they must normally pay taxes.

There are 562 federally recognized American Indian tribes, with a total of 1.7 million members. Additionally, there are hundreds of groups seeking federal recognition – or sovereignty – though less than ten percent will successfully achieve this status. Federally recognised tribes have the right to self-government, and are also eligible for federal assistance programmes. Exempt from state and local jurisdiction, tribes may enforce their own laws, request tax breaks and control regulatory activities. There are however limitations to their sovereignty including, amongst others, the ability to make war and create currency. Historically, tribes were granted federal recognition through treaties or by executive order. Since 1978 however, this has been replaced by a lengthy and stringent regulatory process which requires tribes applying for federal recognition to fulfil seven criteria, such as anthropological and historical evidence. One of the complications regarding federal recognition is the legal definition of “Indian”. Previously, racial criteria, tribal records and personal affidavits were used to classify American Indians. Since the 1970s, however, there has been a shift to the use of a political definition – requiring membership in a federally recognized tribe in order to qualify for benefits, such as loans and educational grants. This definition, however, excludes many individuals of Native American heritage who are not tribal members.

10. A large number of people who identify themselves as American Indians do not fulfill the legal definition.

True

False

Cannot say

True - The second sentence states that there are hundreds of groups attempting to attain federal recognition. The final two sentences states that the legal definition of Indian is membership in a federally recognised tribe. Thus, it follows that many American Indians do not fulfil the legal definition.

There are 562 federally recognized American Indian tribes, with a total of 1.7 million members. Additionally, there are hundreds of groups seeking federal recognition – or sovereignty – though less than ten percent will successfully achieve this status. Federally recognised tribes have the right to self-government, and are also eligible for federal assistance programmes. Exempt from state and local jurisdiction, tribes may enforce their own laws, request tax breaks and control regulatory activities. There are however limitations to their sovereignty including, amongst others, the ability to make war and create currency. Historically, tribes were granted federal recognition through treaties or by executive order. Since 1978 however, this has been replaced by a lengthy and stringent regulatory process which requires tribes applying for federal recognition to fulfil seven criteria, such as anthropological and historical evidence. One of the complications regarding federal recognition is the legal definition of “Indian”. Previously, racial criteria, tribal records and personal affidavits were used to classify American Indians. Since the 1970s, however, there has been a shift to the use of a political definition – requiring membership in a federally recognized tribe in order to qualify for benefits, such as loans and educational grants. This definition, however, excludes many individuals of Native American heritage who are not tribal members.

SAVE 15% on all tests!

Share this test on Facebook and receive a FREE 15% discount on any Assessmentday product.

Share to unlock your discount!

11. Humans primarily use salt for food flavouring and preservation.

True

False

Cannot say

Cannot say - Though these are, indeed, two uses of salt as stated in the second sentence, we are not told whether these uses are the primary use of salt. As an aside, food use actually accounts for less than 20% of salt production.

Sodium chloride, or salt, is essential for human life. Typically derived from the evaporation of sea water or the mining of rock salt deposits, salt has been used by humans for thousands of years as a food seasoning and preservative. The mineral sodium is an electrolyte – an electrically-charged ion – that enables cells to carry electrical impulses to other cells, for example muscle contractions. Electrolytes also regulate the body’s fluid levels. A diet deficient in salt can cause muscle cramps, neurological problems and even death. Conversely, a diet high in salt leads to an increased risk of conditions such as hypertension, heart disease and stroke. In spite of high-profile campaigns to raise awareness, salt consumption has increased by 50% in the past four decades, with the average adult ingesting more than double the amount of salt their body requires. Much of this increase can be attributed to the advent of frozen and processed foods in the mid-twentieth century. In the United States it is estimated that excessive salt consumption claims 150,000 lives and results in $24 billion of health care costs annually. For individuals wishing to reduce their sodium intake, the answer is not simply rejecting the salt shaker; 75% of the average person’s salt consumption comes from food, such as bread, cereals, and cheese.

12. Most adults consume 50% more salt than their body requires.

True

False

Cannot say

Cannot say - The passage tells us that “the average adult” ingests “more than double the amount of salt their body requires”. However we are not told how this average is distributed in order to say whether this statement is true or not. For example it could be possible that the average salt intake is skewed by a small proportion of adults. We cannot tell from the information given alone.

Sodium chloride, or salt, is essential for human life. Typically derived from the evaporation of sea water or the mining of rock salt deposits, salt has been used by humans for thousands of years as a food seasoning and preservative. The mineral sodium is an electrolyte – an electrically-charged ion – that enables cells to carry electrical impulses to other cells, for example muscle contractions. Electrolytes also regulate the body’s fluid levels. A diet deficient in salt can cause muscle cramps, neurological problems and even death. Conversely, a diet high in salt leads to an increased risk of conditions such as hypertension, heart disease and stroke. In spite of high-profile campaigns to raise awareness, salt consumption has increased by 50% in the past four decades, with the average adult ingesting more than double the amount of salt their body requires. Much of this increase can be attributed to the advent of frozen and processed foods in the mid-twentieth century. In the United States it is estimated that excessive salt consumption claims 150,000 lives and results in $24 billion of health care costs annually. For individuals wishing to reduce their sodium intake, the answer is not simply rejecting the salt shaker; 75% of the average person’s salt consumption comes from food, such as bread, cereals, and cheese.

13. Frozen and processed foods contain no more salt than contained in a typical diet.

True

False

Cannot say

False - The 7th sentence states that salt consumption has increased 50%, and the 8th sentence states “much of this increase can be attributed to the advent of frozen and processed foods”. So in order for salt consumption to increase, the salt levels in the new food (frozen and processed food) must be above the average level, or disproportionately high.

Sodium chloride, or salt, is essential for human life. Typically derived from the evaporation of sea water or the mining of rock salt deposits, salt has been used by humans for thousands of years as a food seasoning and preservative. The mineral sodium is an electrolyte – an electrically-charged ion – that enables cells to carry electrical impulses to other cells, for example muscle contractions. Electrolytes also regulate the body’s fluid levels. A diet deficient in salt can cause muscle cramps, neurological problems and even death. Conversely, a diet high in salt leads to an increased risk of conditions such as hypertension, heart disease and stroke. In spite of high-profile campaigns to raise awareness, salt consumption has increased by 50% in the past four decades, with the average adult ingesting more than double the amount of salt their body requires. Much of this increase can be attributed to the advent of frozen and processed foods in the mid-twentieth century. In the United States it is estimated that excessive salt consumption claims 150,000 lives and results in $24 billion of health care costs annually. For individuals wishing to reduce their sodium intake, the answer is not simply rejecting the salt shaker; 75% of the average person’s salt consumption comes from food, such as bread, cereals, and cheese.

14. Over three quarters of the average person’s salt consumption comes from frozen foods.

True

False

Cannot say

False - The last sentence of the passage states that 75% of the average person’s salt intake comes from “food, such as bread, cereals and cheese”. Even if all of this food were classed as frozen (highly implausible) this would still only get us to 75% of the average person’s salt intake; it would not get us to ‘over three quarters’ as the statement says. So it cannot be true.

Sodium chloride, or salt, is essential for human life. Typically derived from the evaporation of sea water or the mining of rock salt deposits, salt has been used by humans for thousands of years as a food seasoning and preservative. The mineral sodium is an electrolyte – an electrically-charged ion – that enables cells to carry electrical impulses to other cells, for example muscle contractions. Electrolytes also regulate the body’s fluid levels. A diet deficient in salt can cause muscle cramps, neurological problems and even death. Conversely, a diet high in salt leads to an increased risk of conditions such as hypertension, heart disease and stroke. In spite of high-profile campaigns to raise awareness, salt consumption has increased by 50% in the past four decades, with the average adult ingesting more than double the amount of salt their body requires. Much of this increase can be attributed to the advent of frozen and processed foods in the mid-twentieth century. In the United States it is estimated that excessive salt consumption claims 150,000 lives and results in $24 billion of health care costs annually. For individuals wishing to reduce their sodium intake, the answer is not simply rejecting the salt shaker; 75% of the average person’s salt consumption comes from food, such as bread, cereals, and cheese.

15. The human body needs salt to maintain constant levels of body fluids.

True

False

Cannot say

Cannot say - The third and fourth sentences tell us that salt contains electrolytes, and that electrolytes "regulate the body's fluid levels". However we are not told if these electrolytes can be found in other foods or drinks, thus we cannot say. Also, don't be misled by the first sentence "salt, is essential for human life"; since this sentence alone does not tell us that salt is essential to maintain levels of body fluids.

Sodium chloride, or salt, is essential for human life. Typically derived from the evaporation of sea water or the mining of rock salt deposits, salt has been used by humans for thousands of years as a food seasoning and preservative. The mineral sodium is an electrolyte – an electrically-charged ion – that enables cells to carry electrical impulses to other cells, for example muscle contractions. Electrolytes also regulate the body’s fluid levels. A diet deficient in salt can cause muscle cramps, neurological problems and even death. Conversely, a diet high in salt leads to an increased risk of conditions such as hypertension, heart disease and stroke. In spite of high-profile campaigns to raise awareness, salt consumption has increased by 50% in the past four decades, with the average adult ingesting more than double the amount of salt their body requires. Much of this increase can be attributed to the advent of frozen and processed foods in the mid-twentieth century. In the United States it is estimated that excessive salt consumption claims 150,000 lives and results in $24 billion of health care costs annually. For individuals wishing to reduce their sodium intake, the answer is not simply rejecting the salt shaker; 75% of the average person’s salt consumption comes from food, such as bread, cereals, and cheese.

16. No legal sales of Ivory have occurred since 1989

True

False

Cannot say

False - The passage states that two permitted one-off Ivory sales occurred in 1999 and 2008.

The United Nations’ Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) recently reaffirmed a 1989 ban on trading ivory, despite calls from Tanzania and Zambia to lift it. Only 470,000 elephants remain in Africa today – compared to 1.3 million in 1979. While natural habitat loss was a significant factor in dwindling elephant populations, poaching for ivory was the main cause. Since the ban’s implementation, elephant populations have recovered in many African countries, but an estimated 38,000 elephants are still killed annually. CITES permitted one-off sales in 1999 and in 2008, allowing approved countries to dispose of their government stockpiles of ivory. Ivory from these sales was exported to Japan and China, where demand for carved ivory is high. Conservation groups vehemently oppose further one-off sales, because much of the ivory sold is of unknown origin. Furthermore, the sales have fuelled far-Eastern demand for ivory. In central and western African countries, where organized crime rings operate lucrative ivory smuggling operations, poaching remains rife. Those in favour of allowing one-off sales argue that elephants are no longer endangered, and that maintaining the ban will simply inflate the price of illegal ivory, making poaching more tempting. Though the CITES decision is viewed as a victory by conservationists, the African elephant’s future relies on governments’ commitment to enforcing the ban.

17. Whether or not African elephants should be classified as endangered is debatable.

True

False

Cannot say

True - The passage presents facts about the on-going problem of poaching, but also states that populations have recovered in many countries and that proponents of one-off sales “argue that elephants are no longer endangered”. Based on the discussion, and the fact that we are told those in favour “argue” that elephants are no longer endangered, we can say the matter is debateable.

The United Nations’ Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) recently reaffirmed a 1989 ban on trading ivory, despite calls from Tanzania and Zambia to lift it. Only 470,000 elephants remain in Africa today – compared to 1.3 million in 1979. While natural habitat loss was a significant factor in dwindling elephant populations, poaching for ivory was the main cause. Since the ban’s implementation, elephant populations have recovered in many African countries, but an estimated 38,000 elephants are still killed annually. CITES permitted one-off sales in 1999 and in 2008, allowing approved countries to dispose of their government stockpiles of ivory. Ivory from these sales was exported to Japan and China, where demand for carved ivory is high. Conservation groups vehemently oppose further one-off sales, because much of the ivory sold is of unknown origin. Furthermore, the sales have fuelled far-Eastern demand for ivory. In central and western African countries, where organized crime rings operate lucrative ivory smuggling operations, poaching remains rife. Those in favour of allowing one-off sales argue that elephants are no longer endangered, and that maintaining the ban will simply inflate the price of illegal ivory, making poaching more tempting. Though the CITES decision is viewed as a victory by conservationists, the African elephant’s future relies on governments’ commitment to enforcing the ban.

18. Conservationists question the provenance of the ivory sold at one-off sales.

True

False

Cannot say

True - The seventh sentence states that conservation groups oppose further sales because “much of the ivory sold is of unknown origin”.

The United Nations’ Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) recently reaffirmed a 1989 ban on trading ivory, despite calls from Tanzania and Zambia to lift it. Only 470,000 elephants remain in Africa today – compared to 1.3 million in 1979. While natural habitat loss was a significant factor in dwindling elephant populations, poaching for ivory was the main cause. Since the ban’s implementation, elephant populations have recovered in many African countries, but an estimated 38,000 elephants are still killed annually. CITES permitted one-off sales in 1999 and in 2008, allowing approved countries to dispose of their government stockpiles of ivory. Ivory from these sales was exported to Japan and China, where demand for carved ivory is high. Conservation groups vehemently oppose further one-off sales, because much of the ivory sold is of unknown origin. Furthermore, the sales have fuelled far-Eastern demand for ivory. In central and western African countries, where organized crime rings operate lucrative ivory smuggling operations, poaching remains rife. Those in favour of allowing one-off sales argue that elephants are no longer endangered, and that maintaining the ban will simply inflate the price of illegal ivory, making poaching more tempting. Though the CITES decision is viewed as a victory by conservationists, the African elephant’s future relies on governments’ commitment to enforcing the ban.

19. Because their elephant populations are thriving, Tanzania and Zambia want to lift the ban on ivory trading.

True

False

Cannot say

Cannot say - Though Tanzania and Zambia want to lift the ban, it is not specified in the passage that they are two countries in which elephant populations have recovered – or indeed whether this is the reason for their calls to lift the ban.

The United Nations’ Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) recently reaffirmed a 1989 ban on trading ivory, despite calls from Tanzania and Zambia to lift it. Only 470,000 elephants remain in Africa today – compared to 1.3 million in 1979. While natural habitat loss was a significant factor in dwindling elephant populations, poaching for ivory was the main cause. Since the ban’s implementation, elephant populations have recovered in many African countries, but an estimated 38,000 elephants are still killed annually. CITES permitted one-off sales in 1999 and in 2008, allowing approved countries to dispose of their government stockpiles of ivory. Ivory from these sales was exported to Japan and China, where demand for carved ivory is high. Conservation groups vehemently oppose further one-off sales, because much of the ivory sold is of unknown origin. Furthermore, the sales have fuelled far-Eastern demand for ivory. In central and western African countries, where organized crime rings operate lucrative ivory smuggling operations, poaching remains rife. Those in favour of allowing one-off sales argue that elephants are no longer endangered, and that maintaining the ban will simply inflate the price of illegal ivory, making poaching more tempting. Though the CITES decision is viewed as a victory by conservationists, the African elephant’s future relies on governments’ commitment to enforcing the ban.

20. Increased demand from Japan and China is driving up the price of ivory.

True

False

Cannot say

Cannot say - The sixth and eight sentences state that there is demand for ivory from China and Japan, the tenth sentence suggests it is the ban – rather than the demand–that is inflating prices. Either way, the passage does not unequivocally state this is or is not the case, therefore we cannot say.

The United Nations’ Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) recently reaffirmed a 1989 ban on trading ivory, despite calls from Tanzania and Zambia to lift it. Only 470,000 elephants remain in Africa today – compared to 1.3 million in 1979. While natural habitat loss was a significant factor in dwindling elephant populations, poaching for ivory was the main cause. Since the ban’s implementation, elephant populations have recovered in many African countries, but an estimated 38,000 elephants are still killed annually. CITES permitted one-off sales in 1999 and in 2008, allowing approved countries to dispose of their government stockpiles of ivory. Ivory from these sales was exported to Japan and China, where demand for carved ivory is high. Conservation groups vehemently oppose further one-off sales, because much of the ivory sold is of unknown origin. Furthermore, the sales have fuelled far-Eastern demand for ivory. In central and western African countries, where organized crime rings operate lucrative ivory smuggling operations, poaching remains rife. Those in favour of allowing one-off sales argue that elephants are no longer endangered, and that maintaining the ban will simply inflate the price of illegal ivory, making poaching more tempting. Though the CITES decision is viewed as a victory by conservationists, the African elephant’s future relies on governments’ commitment to enforcing the ban.

Linkedin Discount: Get 20% off any Assessmentday product

Enjoy 20% off any Assessmentday product when you share this test on Linkedin.

Post this test to reveal your 20% Linkedin discount

Claim your 20% discount Discount expires in 30 minutes

21. The passage does not state whether the economic theory was influenced by biology, although it did come later.

True

False

Cannot say

Cannot say - The passage does not state whether the economic theory was influenced by biology, although it did come later.

In biology, the term mutualism refers to a mutually beneficial relationship between two species. The later economic theory of mutualism is based on the labour theory of value, which states that the true cost of an item is the amount of labour that was required to produce it. Hence, goods should not be sold for more than the cost of acquiring them. Mutualism is closely associated with anarchism, because its principles were set forth in the mid- nineteenth century by the French politician and philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon – the first person to define himself as an “anarchist”. The main tenets of mutualism are free association and free credit. In a mutualist workplace, workers with different skills form an association to create a product or service. Though dependent on each other, the workers are not subordinated as in a capitalist enterprise. Mutual banks, also called credit unions, operate on the belief that free credit enables profit to be generated for the benefit of the union’s members rather than bankers. Modern-day mutualism is sometimes described as free-market socialism. Proponents of mutualism support a free market economy, but object to capitalism because of the inequalities created by government intervention. Many mutual businesses and banking establishments exist today, espousing Proudhon’s Co-operative model.

22. Mutual banking establishments do not operate on a for-profit basis.

True

False

Cannot say

False - Sentence eight tells us that mutual banking establishments do seek to “generate money”, but this profit is shared between union members rather than the bankers. So regardless of who it goes to, we are told the banks do create profit.

In biology, the term mutualism refers to a mutually beneficial relationship between two species. The later economic theory of mutualism is based on the labour theory of value, which states that the true cost of an item is the amount of labour that was required to produce it. Hence, goods should not be sold for more than the cost of acquiring them. Mutualism is closely associated with anarchism, because its principles were set forth in the mid- nineteenth century by the French politician and philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon – the first person to define himself as an “anarchist”. The main tenets of mutualism are free association and free credit. In a mutualist workplace, workers with different skills form an association to create a product or service. Though dependent on each other, the workers are not subordinated as in a capitalist enterprise. Mutual banks, also called credit unions, operate on the belief that free credit enables profit to be generated for the benefit of the union’s members rather than bankers. Modern-day mutualism is sometimes described as free-market socialism. Proponents of mutualism support a free market economy, but object to capitalism because of the inequalities created by government intervention. Many mutual businesses and banking establishments exist today, espousing Proudhon’s Co-operative model.

23. The labour theory of value is defined as: only the person who made an item should profit from its sale.

True

False

Cannot say

False - This is not the definition provided in the second sentence. We are told that the labour theory of value is that the true cost of an item is the amount of labour required to produce it.

In biology, the term mutualism refers to a mutually beneficial relationship between two species. The later economic theory of mutualism is based on the labour theory of value, which states that the true cost of an item is the amount of labour that was required to produce it. Hence, goods should not be sold for more than the cost of acquiring them. Mutualism is closely associated with anarchism, because its principles were set forth in the mid- nineteenth century by the French politician and philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon – the first person to define himself as an “anarchist”. The main tenets of mutualism are free association and free credit. In a mutualist workplace, workers with different skills form an association to create a product or service. Though dependent on each other, the workers are not subordinated as in a capitalist enterprise. Mutual banks, also called credit unions, operate on the belief that free credit enables profit to be generated for the benefit of the union’s members rather than bankers. Modern-day mutualism is sometimes described as free-market socialism. Proponents of mutualism support a free market economy, but object to capitalism because of the inequalities created by government intervention. Many mutual businesses and banking establishments exist today, espousing Proudhon’s Co-operative model.

24. In common with socialism, the economic doctrine of mutualism advocates state control over production.

True

False

Cannot say

False - The passage explains that free association is when workers form an association to create a product, thus production is controlled by the workers rather than the state. And while the ninth sentence refers to mutualism as free-market socialism, the tenth sentence states that proponents of mutualism object to the “inequalities created by government intervention”.

In biology, the term mutualism refers to a mutually beneficial relationship between two species. The later economic theory of mutualism is based on the labour theory of value, which states that the true cost of an item is the amount of labour that was required to produce it. Hence, goods should not be sold for more than the cost of acquiring them. Mutualism is closely associated with anarchism, because its principles were set forth in the mid- nineteenth century by the French politician and philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon – the first person to define himself as an “anarchist”. The main tenets of mutualism are free association and free credit. In a mutualist workplace, workers with different skills form an association to create a product or service. Though dependent on each other, the workers are not subordinated as in a capitalist enterprise. Mutual banks, also called credit unions, operate on the belief that free credit enables profit to be generated for the benefit of the union’s members rather than bankers. Modern-day mutualism is sometimes described as free-market socialism. Proponents of mutualism support a free market economy, but object to capitalism because of the inequalities created by government intervention. Many mutual businesses and banking establishments exist today, espousing Proudhon’s Co-operative model.

25. Free association separates labour from hierarchy and ownership.

True

False

Cannot say

Cannot say - Although we are told that in free association, “workers are not subordinated as in a capitalist enterprise”, the passage does not directly discuss ownership. In-fact in mutualistic workplaces, the organisation is often owned by the labour force themselves and/or the organisations customers/stakeholders.

In biology, the term mutualism refers to a mutually beneficial relationship between two species. The later economic theory of mutualism is based on the labour theory of value, which states that the true cost of an item is the amount of labour that was required to produce it. Hence, goods should not be sold for more than the cost of acquiring them. Mutualism is closely associated with anarchism, because its principles were set forth in the mid- nineteenth century by the French politician and philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon – the first person to define himself as an “anarchist”. The main tenets of mutualism are free association and free credit. In a mutualist workplace, workers with different skills form an association to create a product or service. Though dependent on each other, the workers are not subordinated as in a capitalist enterprise. Mutual banks, also called credit unions, operate on the belief that free credit enables profit to be generated for the benefit of the union’s members rather than bankers. Modern-day mutualism is sometimes described as free-market socialism. Proponents of mutualism support a free market economy, but object to capitalism because of the inequalities created by government intervention. Many mutual businesses and banking establishments exist today, espousing Proudhon’s Co-operative model.

26. Stem cells are at the forefront of medical research because of their ability to grow indefinitely.

True

False

Cannot say

Cannot say - The passage does not tell us if stem cells can grow "indefinitely". Also, the second sentence tells us that stem cells are seen as "key to developing new therapies". It would be a stretch to interpret this as meaning they are at the forefront of medical research, especially as we are not told about their significance compared with other areas of research.

Stem cells are cells that can self-renew and differentiate into specialised cell types. Because of their potential to replace diseased or defective human tissue, stem cells are seen by scientists as key to developing new therapies for a wide range of conditions, including degenerative illnesses and genetic diseases. Treatments based on adult stem cells – from sources such as umbilical cord blood – have been successfully developed, but what makes stem cell research controversial is the use of embryonic stem cells. Not only do embryonic stem cells reproduce more quickly than adult stem cells, they also have wider differentiation potential. The main opponents to stem cell research are pro-life supporters, who believe that human life should not be destroyed for science. Advocates of stem cell research counter this crucial point by saying that an embryo cannot be viewed as a human life, and that medical advances justify the destruction of embryos. Furthermore, stem cell research utilises the thousands of surplus embryos created for in vitro fertilisation treatment. The issue is particularly divisive in the United States, where federal funding is not available for the creation of new embryonic stem cell lines, although recent legislation has opened up government funding to further research on embryonic stem cells created through private funding. Whereas many governments prohibit the production of embryonic stem cells, it is allowed in countries including the UK, Sweden and the Netherlands.

Free 10% discount!

Tweet this test to claim your 10% discount.

Claim your 10% discount Discount expires in 30 minutes

27. The United States government does not supply funding for projects using embryonic stem cell lines.

True

False

Cannot say

False - The 8th sentence states that federal funding is now available for further research into stem cells lines that have been created using private funding.

Stem cells are cells that can self-renew and differentiate into specialised cell types. Because of their potential to replace diseased or defective human tissue, stem cells are seen by scientists as key to developing new therapies for a wide range of conditions, including degenerative illnesses and genetic diseases. Treatments based on adult stem cells – from sources such as umbilical cord blood – have been successfully developed, but what makes stem cell research controversial is the use of embryonic stem cells. Not only do embryonic stem cells reproduce more quickly than adult stem cells, they also have wider differentiation potential. The main opponents to stem cell research are pro-life supporters, who believe that human life should not be destroyed for science. Advocates of stem cell research counter this crucial point by saying that an embryo cannot be viewed as a human life, and that medical advances justify the destruction of embryos. Furthermore, stem cell research utilises the thousands of surplus embryos created for in vitro fertilisation treatment. The issue is particularly divisive in the United States, where federal funding is not available for the creation of new embryonic stem cell lines, although recent legislation has opened up government funding to further research on embryonic stem cells created through private funding. Whereas many governments prohibit the production of embryonic stem cells, it is allowed in countries including the UK, Sweden and the Netherlands.

28. One advantage of embryonic stem cells over adult stem cells is their greater ability to be converted into specialised cell types.

True

False

Cannot say

True - The first sentence defines cell differentiation as changing into specialised cell types. The fourth sentence states that embryonic stem cells have a “wider differentiation potential” than adult stem cells. Therefore the statement is true.

Stem cells are cells that can self-renew and differentiate into specialised cell types. Because of their potential to replace diseased or defective human tissue, stem cells are seen by scientists as key to developing new therapies for a wide range of conditions, including degenerative illnesses and genetic diseases. Treatments based on adult stem cells – from sources such as umbilical cord blood – have been successfully developed, but what makes stem cell research controversial is the use of embryonic stem cells. Not only do embryonic stem cells reproduce more quickly than adult stem cells, they also have wider differentiation potential. The main opponents to stem cell research are pro-life supporters, who believe that human life should not be destroyed for science. Advocates of stem cell research counter this crucial point by saying that an embryo cannot be viewed as a human life, and that medical advances justify the destruction of embryos. Furthermore, stem cell research utilises the thousands of surplus embryos created for in vitro fertilisation treatment. The issue is particularly divisive in the United States, where federal funding is not available for the creation of new embryonic stem cell lines, although recent legislation has opened up government funding to further research on embryonic stem cells created through private funding. Whereas many governments prohibit the production of embryonic stem cells, it is allowed in countries including the UK, Sweden and the Netherlands.

29. The bioethical debate over embryonic stem cell research centres on whether it involves the destruction of human life.

True

False

Cannot say

True - The fifth and sixth sentences present either side of this debate. The debate can be said to ‘centre’ on this issue because the passage tells us “the main opponents to stem cell research are pro-life supporters” and then “Advocates of stem cell research counter this crucial point...”.

Stem cells are cells that can self-renew and differentiate into specialised cell types. Because of their potential to replace diseased or defective human tissue, stem cells are seen by scientists as key to developing new therapies for a wide range of conditions, including degenerative illnesses and genetic diseases. Treatments based on adult stem cells – from sources such as umbilical cord blood – have been successfully developed, but what makes stem cell research controversial is the use of embryonic stem cells. Not only do embryonic stem cells reproduce more quickly than adult stem cells, they also have wider differentiation potential. The main opponents to stem cell research are pro-life supporters, who believe that human life should not be destroyed for science. Advocates of stem cell research counter this crucial point by saying that an embryo cannot be viewed as a human life, and that medical advances justify the destruction of embryos. Furthermore, stem cell research utilises the thousands of surplus embryos created for in vitro fertilisation treatment. The issue is particularly divisive in the United States, where federal funding is not available for the creation of new embryonic stem cell lines, although recent legislation has opened up government funding to further research on embryonic stem cells created through private funding. Whereas many governments prohibit the production of embryonic stem cells, it is allowed in countries including the UK, Sweden and the Netherlands.

30. Treatments based on embryonic stem cells provide therapies for a wide range of diseases.

True

False

Cannot say

Cannot say - The third sentence states that treatments based on adult stem cells have been developed. However it does not specify whether treatments based on embryonic stem cells have also been successfully developed.

Stem cells are cells that can self-renew and differentiate into specialised cell types. Because of their potential to replace diseased or defective human tissue, stem cells are seen by scientists as key to developing new therapies for a wide range of conditions, including degenerative illnesses and genetic diseases. Treatments based on adult stem cells – from sources such as umbilical cord blood – have been successfully developed, but what makes stem cell research controversial is the use of embryonic stem cells. Not only do embryonic stem cells reproduce more quickly than adult stem cells, they also have wider differentiation potential. The main opponents to stem cell research are pro-life supporters, who believe that human life should not be destroyed for science. Advocates of stem cell research counter this crucial point by saying that an embryo cannot be viewed as a human life, and that medical advances justify the destruction of embryos. Furthermore, stem cell research utilises the thousands of surplus embryos created for in vitro fertilisation treatment. The issue is particularly divisive in the United States, where federal funding is not available for the creation of new embryonic stem cell lines, although recent legislation has opened up government funding to further research on embryonic stem cells created through private funding. Whereas many governments prohibit the production of embryonic stem cells, it is allowed in countries including the UK, Sweden and the Netherlands.